Solar cells

Energy

Description

A photovoltaic device turns light into electricity – they could tackle issues of clean energy production, although their light-to-electricity conversion efficiencies have slowed their broad uptake to date. Recent years and developments have however seen the landscape changing.

Research into areas such...

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List of Possible Process Flows

Click below to reveal the possible process flows for this application. Each step is linked to capability in our database. Alternatively, search from a full list of capabilities here.

Fabrication of water sensitive materials in controlled atmosphere

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  • Step 1

    Computers

    Professional CAD computing requires serious hardware – certain ANFF sites possess dedicated CAD computers for modelling and designing purposes.

    These computers will feature specific software packages to model complex systems such as optical or microfluidic devices, to interpret 3D scanner information, or to...

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    Cleaning

    Cleaning, an essential step when operating on the micro and nanoscale, is used to remove contaminants from the surface of the substrate before it is used in another fabrication process.

    This sometimes means simply burning away material, often using an asher to do this. Ashers use heat to remove unwanted material,...

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    Gloveboxes

    Gloveboxes provide an encapsulated environment to either protect a sample from the atmosphere, or to protect the cleanroom from a sample.

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    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) involves the deposition of materials one atomic monolayer at a time. It forms extremely uniform, conformal, pin-hole-free coatings even on high-aspect-ratio structures. This is achieved by pulsing a chemical precursor onto a hydroxylated substrate surface which reacts, resulting in a...

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    Electron Beam Evaporation (E-Beam Evaporation)

    Electron-beam evaporation is a physical vapour deposition method for depositing thin films of metals, oxides and semiconductors in a high vacuum environment. Ultra high purity coating material is placed inside a vacuum chamber, typically as pellets in a crucible. Electron energy is used to heat these pellets,...

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    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the most versatile characterisation methods.

    AFM performs scanning probe microscopy, scanning the surface of a material with a nanoscale cantilever, either through direct contact or through oscillating the cantilever just above the surface. When the cantilever is positioned...

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    Electrical characterisation

    For electrical devices, MEMS, and solar cells, the electrical properties are often what dictates whether the device is performing as expected. As such there are a range of ways to understand different aspects of these properties.

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