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E-beam evaporator

In addition to sputtering, evaporation is another main class of physical vapour deposition (PVD) techniques. In these deposition techniques, thermal energy is applied to the source material, which then evaporates by sublimation or after melting. These are line-of-sight depositions that take place in ultra-high vacuum conditions. In some cases thermal evaporation is used, where the evaporant is placed inside a metal boat or a crucible. The material is then heated resistively or inductively. These methods are susceptible to contamination, and cannot be used to deposit materials with high melting points.

The source material can instead be heated with a beam of electrons, which provides localised heating. In this way, many materials can be evaporated with very little contamination.

Fabrication step: Micro and nano fabrication
Function: Deposition
Location: Australian National University
Purpose: Contact formation, metallisation
Material systems: Ge, Au, Pt, Ni, Pd, Ti, ITO, MgF2, SiO2
Node: Australian Capital Territory
Scale/volume: up to 3 inch substrate